Abstract

The Kapuskasing uplift is an oblique cross section of Archean crust exposed by a major thrusting event in Early Proterozoic times. Previous results from the traveltime and amplitude analysis of compressional-wave (P-wave) arrivals from a seismic-refraction experiment have been used to constrain the modelling of shear-wave (S-wave) arrivals and gravity anomalies along the seismic profiles. S-wave and P-wave velocity information have been combined to obtain the variations of Poisson's ratio within the crust. High and low Poisson's ratio values have been linked to the mafic and felsic content, respectively, of the Shield rocks. Density variations along the profiles, constrained by the P-wave velocity structures and the observed gravity anomalies, again have been linked to the lithological variations as observed in the exposed cross section. Geological models, constrained by the geophysical observations and the cross-sectional exposure, have been constructed for profiles across the northern and southern portions of the main uplift region. The results indicate an increase in pyroxene and garnetiferous gneisses with depth in the crust, as suggested by the high P-wave velocities (7.0–7.6 km/s), high densities (3050–3150 kg/m3, high Poisson's ratio values (0.26–0.28), and the petrological variations within the exposure. The presence of a low-velocity and low-density layer of tonalites under the surface greenstones has been established and can account for the low-velocity zones imaged along the Abitibi profile of this experiment and those imaged in other Shield refraction experiments.

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