Abstract

Sedimentological and petrographical data obtained from five sections located north and south of the Caledonian Highlands in southeastern New Brunswick demonstrate the existence of three main till units and one glaciofluvial unit, which have been grouped in four distinct lithostratigraphic units. The lower till was deposited by a glacier that overrode the Caledonian Highlands from northwest to southeast and advanced as far as Nova Scotia during Middle(?) to Late Wisconsinan times. The overlying middle till from the north provides evidence that ice continued to advance across the Highlands from northwest toward southeast and then was partially overwhelmed by another glacier that was advancing southwest along the southern border of the Highlands: this glacier deposited a coeval middle till. During Late Wisconsinan deglaciation, ice separated into two masses: a residual ice cap with radial outflow from the Highlands; and a lobe in the Chignecto Bay, retreating toward the northeast. The existence of a plateau ice cap is demonstrated by the presence of till and glaciofluvial deposits in the upper part of all surveyed sections, and is supported by the sequence of ice flow patterns recorded by striae and the centrifugal distribution of meltwater flow indicators. The weak development of soils, the fresh appearance of till and morainic landforms, and the lack of periglacial features throughout the area, especially on the Highlands, all favour the interpretation that the Caledonian Highlands were not a nunatak during the glacial maximum of the Late Wisconsinan Substage.

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