A Johnson-Sea-Link submersible was used to examine the geology of Superior Shoal in central Lake Superior. Here, glacially scoured, vertical cliffs, some more than 100 m high, are formed of 1.1 Ga middle Keweenawan basaltic lava flows displaying ophitic interiors and red amygdaloidal tops. Flat-lying sandstones, lithologically similar to the upper Keweenawan Bayfield–Jacobsville sequences, occur to the north of the volcanic rocks. These are inferred to have been downthrown along an eastward extension of the Isle Royale fault, a major boundary fault of the Midcontinent rift. The volcanic rocks are normally magnetized, supporting lithological evidence that they correlate with the middle Keweenawan sequence on Isle Royale. Paleomagnetic data suggest that the volcanics have a complex structure, possibly involving drag folding along the Isle Royale fault.

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