Abstract

A 1.5 km segment of Ingraham ridge, a stratified sand and gravel ridge in northeastern New York, is composed dominantly of subaqueous outwash deposits. The core of the ridge segment may include subordinate subglacial tunnel deposits. The subaqueous outwash is composed mainly of interbedded sediment gravity flow, bar, dune, and ripple deposits that occur in channels. Sheetlike cross-stratified and cross-laminated deposits also are common, particularly on the distal western margin of the ridge segment. The ridge segment is draped by glaciolacustrine laminated sand, silt, and clay and glaciomarine massive mud. Westward decrease in grain size and scale of sedimentary structures is attributed to confining ice walls of an asymmetric embayment. Sediments are deformed in part by the melting of adjacent and buried ice. The ridge was modified during Champlain Sea regression and the reworked deposits were colonized by shallow-water organisms. Reworking may have been minor, and the broad, low morphology of the ridge may be due to subaqueous outwash deposition along its full length during retreat of the ice margin.

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