Late Wisconsinan sand and gravel deposits on the Frontenac Arch, Ontario, record a major meltwater drainage system developed subglacially and subaqueously in one or more glacial lake phases of the Lake Ontario basin during retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Factors influencing channel location, morphology, and sediment deposition are ice flow direction and the Precambrian bedrock topography, in turn dependent upon bedrock structure and composition. Meltwater drainage across the Frontenac Arch is localized within a broad depression oriented approximately parallel to glacial flow. Sediment deposition within the regional depression follows ice-flow direction despite irregular bedrock relief, indicating formation of the meltwater system and associated sediments in three stages: (i) establishment of a continuous meltwater system subglacially under high hydrostatic pressure with minor erosion of underlying Precambrian bedrock; (ii) deposition of poorly sorted, coarse-grained sediment in cavities or channels associated with irregular bedrock topography; and (iii) deposition of several coalescing subaqueous outwash fans at the ice margin as the glacier receded from the area. The discontinuous nature of the deposits and the association of proximal to distal outwash fan facies within a deposit suggest that esker sedimentation occurred during periodic stabilization of the ice front during deglaciation.

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