Study of two cores through an ice cap on northern Ellesmere Island suggests (1) during the Wisconsin Glaciation the ice near the crest was never more than about 200 m thicker than at present; (2) in a preceding glaciation, the ice was thicker than this, and the local ice divide near the boreholes was eliminated; (3) early in the Sangamon Interglacial, basal melting occurred in a deep bedrock valley south of the borehole site; and (4) the change in δ18O at the Wisconsinan–Holocene transition is 11‰, of which at least 8‰ results from climatic warming.

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