Abstract

Oxygen isotopic compositions of whole rocks and coexisting quartz–feldspar pairs have been determined for nine pre-, and syn- to late-kinematic granitoid plutons in the Grenville Province of Ontario. These new data demonstrate that granitoid rocks (Algonquin, Mulock) in migmatite terrain of the Ontario Gneiss Segment possess normal δ18O values (<9.0‰), whereas mesozonal to epizonal plutons (Elphin, Coe Hill, Deloro, Barber's Lake) in the Central Metasedimentary Belt (CMB) are characterized by significantly higher 18O contents (δ18O > 9.0‰), in accord with previous results.In the Algonquin sodic suite, a gross covariance of δ18O with compositional indices is present, from 6.4‰, SiO2 = 50.5 wt. % (gabbro) to 8.7‰, SiO2 = 72 wt. % (trondhjemite), resulting from combined assimilation–fractional crystallization. Mafic members of the sodic suite are 18O enriched overall (5.8–7.9‰) relative to fresh tholeiites (5.7 + 0.3‰), implicating some 18O contamination of the protolith. The dispersion of δ18O values in the Algonquin potassic suite, from 4.3 to 9.3‰, is independent of composition and attributed to isotopic exchange with low-18O thermal waters during emplacement. Biotite–hornblende granite of the Mulock batholith is characterized by a limited oxygen isotope compositional range, where the average δ18O = 8.1 ± 0.5‰; δ18O correlates with SiO2 but not with the zonal distribution of Ba, Rb, and Sr abundances.The Union Lake quartz diorite (δ18O = 8.5 ± 0.1‰) and White Lake trondhjemite (δ18O = 7.3 ± 0.6‰) have oxygen isotope compositions comparable to those of other trondhjemitic suites in the CMB. A systematic enrichment of ~1.2‰ in the Union Lake pluton, together with enhanced Ca, Mg, Fe, and Sr, can be accounted for by assimilation of ~5% marbles and 10% amphibolites from the country rock. Uniformly high δ18O values of 11.5 ± 0.8‰ characterize the Elphin granite–syenite complex. The largest values (11.7–12.7‰) and lowest SiO2 (54–56 wt. %) are in the partially assimilated host gabbro–diorite complex, endorsing the presence of 18O-enriched source regions. The Cheddar biotite–hornblende granite, one of a population of intrusions within the alkalic belt of the western CMB, has a restricted isotopic span, where δ18O = 8.8 ± 0.9‰. An unusual concave rare-earth-element (REE) distribution may result from interaction with a heavy rare-earth -element (HREE) enriched volatile phase. The Coe Hill biotite granite (δ18O = 10.4 ± 0.4‰) is isotopically in compliance with other granites and syenites of the CMB. Covariance of δ18O and SiO2, in conjunction with smooth and continuous geochemical trends, is interpreted in terms of assimilation–fractional crystallization.Peralkaline granite of the Deloro pluton includes a hypersolvus phase with high, scattered δ18O values (9.1–11.8‰) and a subsolvus counterpart attributed to late influx of water that induced isotopic reequilibration toward a more constrained range (δ18O = 9.2–10.2‰). REE distributions of a calcic syenite phase are compatible with its evolution by fractional crystallization of a low-K tholeiitic magma, and the high-18O character (δ18O = 11.1–12.6‰) requires 18O enrichment of the protolith and (or) 18O contamination of the magma. Peralkaline rhyolitic volcanics, compositionally coherent with the Deloro pluton and possibly representing extrusive equivalents, possess significantly higher and more variable δ18O values, from 11.7 to 14.2‰; this is attributed to 18O enrichment during low-temperature exchange with thermal waters, superimposed on a primary high-18O magma. The Barber's Lake two-mica granite contains enhanced abundances of U (15 ppm) and Th (36 ppm) in conjunction with systematically elevated δ18O values (10.4 ± 0.5‰). Geochemical constraints are compatible with its evolution from a trondhjemitic magma, but the isotopically enriched nature requires extensive 18O contamination of the protolith and (or) magma. These nine granites variously retain "memory" of primary and (or) secondary features, including δ18O of the source region, covariance of isotopic and compositional parameters, and sporadically superimposed disturbance by exchange with thermal waters. During metamorphism, quartz and feldspar were systematically reset to high-temperature fractionations, but the extent of open-system exchange with rock reservoirs was limited.Despite some probable disturbance by metamorphism and the limited data available, O–Sr isotope systematics of the Grenville granitoids indicate that (1) high-18O granites from the Frontenac Axis were derived from in situ anatexis of Grenville Supergroup metasediments, (2) synkinematic granites were derived by mixing of a primary magma generated at a lower crustal (granulite facies) or upper mantle level with the fusion products generated by partial melting of the Archean–Early Proterozoic type metasediments, and (3) the tonalite–trondhjemite suite in this part of the Grenville Province was derived from a similar lower crustal or upper mantle primary magma by direct fractional crystallization.

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