Pelitic and basic rocks of the Grenville Supergroup in the Maniwaki area (100 km north of Ottawa) were selected for a detailed investigation of the metamorphic history of the Central Metasedimentary Belt of the Grenville Province.Mineral assemblages suggest metamorphic conditions of the granulite facies with local and irregular persistence of the amphibolite facies. Chemical analysis of minerals reveals a lack of equilibrium on the thin section scale. Systematic variation of mineral compositions is explained as the net result of several mineral equilibria established at different stages during the metamorphic evolution of the area. Peak temperatures obtained by biotite–garnet thermometry (cores of isolated grains) are between 760 and 860 °C, whereas clinopyroxene–garnet thermometry gives 740–820 °C. Retrograde temperatures as estimated by various thermometers range between 550 and 750 °C (biotite–garnet), 498 and 670 °C (cordierite–garnet), and 690 and 720 °C (clinopyroxene–garnet). Peak pressures were 6.5–8.5 kbar (650–850 MPa) based upon the ga–pl–sil–qtz barometer and the cpx–ga–pl–qtz barometer. Retrograde pressures of 3.5–5.5 kbar (350–550 MPa) (ga–pl–sil–qtz), 4.1–5.2 kbar (410–520 MPa) (cd–ga), and 5.7–7 kbar (570–700 MPa) (cpx–ga–pl–qtz) were determined.A compilation of results in a P–T diagram allows us to construct a retrograde gradient convex towards the T axis, with an average slope of 12 bar/°C (1.2 MPa/°C). This curve suggests fast uplift and erosion just after the peak of metamorphism followed by a long cooling stage accompanied by minor uplift.