Buried ice and sand wedges have been found in glacially deformed sediments that can be no younger than the early Wisconsinan. The environmental conditions at the time of ice-wedge cracking have been inferred from the number of elementary ice veinlets, the vertical extent of the wedges, collapse structures, oxygen isotope ratios, and macrofossils of plants and insects. The winter ground and summer climates were probably as warm or warmer than the present. The preservation of the ice in the ice wedges shows that permafrost has been present at Hooper Island since at least the early Wisconsinan.

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