Abstract

The four species of solitary Rugosa known from the Stony Mountain Formation at Stony Mountain in southern Manitoba belong to different genera, and differ from one another in external form. The distribution and abundance of taxa and their frequency with respect to one another were related to the degree of environmental restriction. The boundary between the Gunn Member and overlying Penitentiary Member corresponds to a marked increase in overall abundance and change in relative frequency. Helicelasma and Bighornia are dominant in the Gunn and lower Penitentiary, respectively. Deiracorallium and Lobocorallium decrease in frequency at the boundary.Larvae of these solitary Rugosa attached to the substrate with their cardinal side. Coralla of Helicelasma, Deiracorallium, and Lobocorallium were oriented in the sediment with the top of the convex cardinal side at or near the substrate surface and the upper part of the concave counter side exposed above it during life. Bighornia lay with the convex counter side in the sediment and the concave cardinal side at least partly exposed. Epizoic bryozoans generally became associated with live hosts, and were especially common on the exposed side of relatively large individuals. Microscopic boring algae infested the outer wall of most corals in the Gunn Member, usually while the hosts were alive. Responses of the polyp to stress and injury are indicated by redirection of the growth axis, constriction of the calice rim, and repair of broken calice rims. The attitudinal and directional orientations of solitary corals suggest that most and possibly all were transported after death. Differences in depositional orientation among the taxa are related to coral form. Currents were unidirectional from the present southeast during Gunn time, and either unidirectional from the southeast or northwest, or oscillating from both directions in early Penitentiary time. Abrasion of coral exteriors was primarily a post-mortem event associated with transportation. Trypanites borings were probably produced by one species of annelid after deposition of the corals. The degree of abrasion and frequency of annelid borings tended to increase with coral size and the duration of exposure before burial.

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