Abstract

Seismological experiments have been undertaken at a test site near Chalk River, Ontario that consists of crystalline rocks covered by glacial sediments. Near-surface P and S wave velocity and amplitude variations have been measured along profiles less than 2 km in length. The P and S wave velocities were generally in the range 4.5–5.6 and 2.9–3.2 km/s, respectively. These results are consistent with propagation through fractured gneiss and monzonite, which form the bulk of the rock body. The P wave velocity falls below 5.0 km/s in a region where there is a major fault and in an area of high electrical conductivity; such velocity minima are therefore associated with fracture systems. For some paths, the P and 5 wave velocities were in the ranges 6.2–6.6 and 3.7–4.1 km/s, respectively, showing the presence of thin sheets of gabbro. Temporal changes in P travel times of up to 1.4% over a 12 h period were observed where the sediment cover was thickest. The cause may be changes in the water table. The absence of polarized SH arrivals from specially designed shear wave sources indicates the inhomogeneity of the test site. A Q value of 243 ± 53 for P waves was derived over one relatively homogeneous profile of about 600 m length. P wave velocity minima measured between depths of 25 and 250 m in a borehole correlate well with the distribution of fractures inferred from optical examination of borehole cores, laboratory measurements of seismic velocities, and tube wave studies.

You do not currently have access to this article.