Distribution of Ti, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, and REE in Proterozoic amphibolites and a rarely preserved pillowed metabasalt in the vicinity of Pb–Zn mineralization at Montauban-les-Mines in the Grenville Province of Quebec are used to assess the tectonic setting of the volcanism and, hence, the environment of ore deposition. Absolute abundances of Ti, Sr, Y, Zr, and Nb are close to those reported for modem island-arc and back-arc basalts. The flat patterns of the chondrite-normalized REE distribution and the discrimination plots of the other elements indicate a tholeiitic affinity for the volcanism. Specifically, plots of Ti against Zr and Ti–Zr–Y are mostly in the fields reported for ocean-floor (MOR and back-arc) basalts, but overlap with arc tholeiites. Cr and Ni are, however, higher than for most arc tholeiites. Overall, the data are most compatible with tholeiitic volcanism in an island-arc (including back-arc) environment.