Abstract

The Saguenay region is divided into three lithostructural units, namely (1) a gneiss complex; (2) batholithic anorthosite and mangerite complexes; and (3) late- to post-kinematic plutons. Three age groups of rocks in the gneiss complex are defined by increasing complexity of structure and mobilizates. Rocks of age group I (paragneiss, granite I) show extremely complex structure and contain three generations of mobilizates. Structures in rocks of age group II (granite II, amphibolite II dykes) are less complex and two generations of mobilizates are present. Rocks of age group III (granite III, amphibolite III dykes) contain one foliation and one generation of mobilizates. Metamorphosed mafic dykes are stratigraphic markers permitting correlation of age groups over vast tracts of terrain.Well-preserved igneous structures (cumulate layering) and textures (cumulate textures, ophitic textures) prove that anorthosite and mangerite crystallized from magmas. Anorthosite has been granulated and foliated, metamorphosed at high pressure with formation of orthopyroxene–spinel coronas by reaction of olivine and plagioclase, and intruded by three successive generations of mafic dykes (diorite, leucotroctolite, amphibolite IIIa).Mineral associations in the gneiss complex suggest metamorphism during slow cooling at about 5 kbar (500 MPa) pressure. Successive mineral associations in anorthosite and its cross-cutting dykes suggest a history of decreasing pressure (from >7–9 kbar (700–900 MPa)) and temperature (from 1200–1400 °C). Thus the anorthosite was emplaced at its present level by diapirism. Structures in the gneiss complex and anorthosite are consistent with the model of diapiric rise of anorthosite and mangerite plutons, but suggest presence of a generation of orogenic structures prior to diapirism.

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