Six heat flow values have been obtained from measurements made in the sediments of thermally-stable lakes in four major structural belts of northwestern Ontario. Each heat flow is the average of measurements from 3–6 neighbouring lakes. Corrections for the thermal history, lateral heat flow, sedimentation, and refraction effects have been applied. High heat flows which were measured in the Quetico gneiss superbelt (77 mW/m2) and on the Indian Lake intrusion in the Wabigoon superbelt (64 mW/m2) are related to above-average heat productivities at these locations, but the extent in depth of the sources is shown to be very different in the two cases. The consistency of the lake results with borehole measurements, on a heat flow – heat productivity plot, strongly suggests that the former are not perturbed by recent climatic variations.