Three short cores of Windsor Group carbonates from the northeast Newfoundland Shelf yielded Late Viséan foraminifers of Zones 15 and 16Inf. This most northeastward occurrence of the marine Lower Carboniferous on the American continent has foraminifers identical to those reported from Windsor carbonates exposed in southwestern Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. The foraminifera belong to the North American realm and not to the Tethyan realm. The algae are exceptionally well preserved. Except for a single species, they are also 'American' and not Tethyan. This confirms that the proto-Atlantic effectively separates the North American and Euro–African continental blocks in Early Carboniferous time.

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