Ultramafic xenoliths from the Elwin Bay kimberlite provide samples of the upper mantle beneath arctic Canada. The compositions of coexisting pyroxenes have been used to estimate the temperatures and pressures of equilibration of the three texturally and mineralogically distinct types of xenolith, i.e. spinel lherzolite (840–935 °C), coarse garnet lherzolite (925–1085 °C at 39.5–49.5 kbar (3.95–4.95 × 106 kPa)) and porphyroclastic garnet lherzolite (1090–1180 °C at 47.0–51.5 kbar (4.7–5.2 × 106 kPa)). The garnet lherzolite data define an inflected paleogeotherm whose upper limb lies at shallower depths than found for the Thaba Putsoa – Mothae paleogeotherm but which is identical to the Montana paleogeotherm. No evidence is found for iron enrichment of the upper mantle in this region.