Miniature injection features, including mud volcanoes, dikes forming polygonal patterns, and isolated patches of clay, occur in tidal flats along the east coast of James Bay. They are formed by localized upward ejection of a mixture of fluidized marine clay, silt, and fine sand through a surficial recent mud deposit. Liquefaction is related to the melting of ice in the clayey deposit. Upward flowing of clay, silt, and fine sand seems to result from overloading by the overlying sediments having a higher degree of density, and possibly also by pressures of ice floes or/and icefoot.

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