The geology of the buried Precambrian basement under Manitoulin Island in northern Lake Huron, Ontario, has been re-evaluated on the basis of aeromagnetic data, well cuttings, core samples, and rubidium–strontium and uranium–lead geochronologic data on some of the subsurface samples. We conclude that the northern half of the island is underlain in part by Huronian metasedimentary rocks, but that these are absent from the southern part of the island, which is underlain by granitic, gneissic, and metavolcanic rocks. Granitic and gneissic rocks are also present under the northern half of the island.Geochronologic data show that rocks underlying major positive aeromagnetic anomalies are quartz-monzonitic composite plutons which are about 1500 ± 20 m.y. old. Surrounding metasedimentary. gneissic, and granitic rocks are at least 1700 m.y. old. No evidence was found for extrapolation of the pre-Huroman Archean basement beneath Manitoulin Island; if it is present it has been affected by younger metamorphic overprinting.The south west ward extension of the boundary zone between the Grenville Province and rocks to the west can he traced along the east end of Manitoulin Island on the basis of aeromagnetic data.