Frenchman's Cap dome is one of a series of gneiss domes along the eastern border of the high-grade Shuswap metamorphic complex. The granitic gneisses which compose the core of the dome are enclosed in an envelope of metasedimentary rocks.Before Shuswap metamorphism and deformation, the rocks of the sedimentary envelope were intruded by concordant bodies of alkalic rocks and carbonatite. Other carbonatite bodies appear to have formed at or extruded onto the surface. It is not certain whether these are exhalative sedimentary deposits, lava flows, or pyroclastic deposits.Criteria which can be used to distinguish igneous alkalic rocks from those of metasomatic origin were almost entirely destroyed by regional metamorphism. A few relict igneous textures show that at least some of the alkalic gneisses are of igneous origin.

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