Thin iron and manganese-rich layers occur within or just below the initial stage of the Holocene sediments of Thunder Bay. Although more than one process may have been involved, most of the iron and manganese would appear to have been solubilized by connate waters under the reducing conditions of the early burial stage, subsequently migrated upward with the connate waters along vertical fractures during compaction, and then were eventually deposited as oxides along favorable Eh horizons under the oxidizing conditions of the initial stage of the syndiagenetic sequence.

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