Abstract

Halloysite is used for targeted delivery of drugs and other biomolecules. Renewed interest in examination by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to predict the size of particles that can be loaded onto the nanotubes has resulted. Anhydrous halloysite consists of spiraled tubules the length and diameter of which can be determined by measurement using an electron microscope. In spite of ample evidence regarding the spiral structure of halloysite, current programs to evaluate the structure of halloysite nanotubes consider it to be a hollow tube or a cylinder which prevents accurate prediction of its structure and leads to misinformation about the sizes of materials that can be loaded onto the nanotubes. The overall objective of the current study was to derive equations to estimate the structure of halloysite nanotubes which take into consideration its spiral structure. The study of Fourier transform either by electron diffraction or XRD led to the measurement of the spiral thickness and the nature of the spiral. Calculations of the nanotube dimensions may determine the ability of these carriers to allow the mechanical delivery of certain drugs. Here the structure of hydrated halloysite (hollow cylindrical tubes with a doughnut-like cross-section) and anhydrous halloysite (spiraled or helical structure) are described as previously reported in the literature. The Fourier transform of the spiraled structure was selected based on three different kinds of spirals: the Archimedean spiral, the Power spiral, and the Logarithmic spiral. Programs used to define the crystal structure of materials and to calculate the Fourier transform need to take the spiral structure into consideration.

You do not currently have access to this article.