Abstract

Todorokite is a common Mn oxide (with a tunnel structure) in the Earth surface environment, and can be obtained by hydrothermal treatment or refluxing process from precursor buserite with a layered structure. Several chemical reaction conditions for the phase transformation from Na-buserite to todorokite at atmospheric pressure were investigated, including temperature, pH, crystallinity of precursor Na-buserite, the amount of the interlayer Mg2+ of the Mg-buserite and clay minerals. The results showed that the conversion rate and crystallinity of todorokite decreased with falling temperature, and Mg-buserite could not be completely transformed to todorokite at lower temperatures (40°C). The poorly crystalline Na-buserite could be converted into todorokite more easily than highly crystalline Na-buserite. Todorokite can be prepared at pH 5–9, but the rate of conversion and crystallinity of todorokite did vary with pH in the order: neutral ≈ alkali > acidic. The conversion rate of todorokite decreased with decreasing interlayer Mg2+ content of the Mg-buserite. The presence of montmorillonite or goethite slowed the formation reaction of todorokite in the refluxing process, and the reaction time was prolonged when the amounts of those minerals were increased.

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