Dioctahedral clay minerals such as smectite, illite-smectite (I-S) mixed-layer minerals, and illite are widespread as hydrothermal alteration products, so that understanding the crystallization processes of the minerals provides useful information about the thermal and geochemical history during alteration. Sequential distribution from smectite to illite via I-S minerals as a function of temperature, similar to that in burial diagenetic environments, has been documented in many active and extinct hydrothermal systems (Inoue, 1995, and references therein). The formation of I-S minerals is actually affected not only by temperature, but also by other factors such as fluid chemistry, time, fluid/ rock...

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