Abstract

Sedimentary zeolite occurrences are widespread in Central and Western Anatolia, Turkey. Erionite occurrences in Central Anatolia have significant health implications for inhabitants of the region. The widespread occurrences of zeolites are generally associated with volcano-sedimentary rocks and consist of low-temperature forms. The aim of the work was to define specifically the formation mechanism and chemical characteristics of these volcano-sedimentary deposits, and particularly, the stability conditions for erionite. The first step was to construct chemical potential diagrams and calculate thermodynamic data for erionite and Ca-saponite. Then, equilibrium activity diagrams were calculated for the zeolites and related minerals in the system of Ca-Na-K-Mg-Fe-Al-Si and H2O. Stability diagrams for log [aCa2+/(aH+)2] − log [aNa+/aH+] and log [aCa2+/(aH+)2] − log [aK+/aH+] for various saturation phase activities of Al3+ and SiO2(aq) were plotted for sedimentary conditions. The coexisting phases and chemical characteristics of the each deposit were evaluated by examination of the activity diagrams. Deposits which do not include some of the common sedimentary zeolites, possibly have high Al3+ activity (equal to or greater than gibbsite saturation) or low SiO(aq) activity (less than quartz saturation) during formation. In addition, erionite was found to be very sensitive to the alkalinity of the system and is stable in only a limited range of thermochemical conditions.

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