Minerals in surface environments form in both turbulent and non-turbulent systems. This study compares the properties of Al goethite formed form ferrihydrite at 60 degrees C in 0.3 M KOH with and without mechanical stirring. Compared to the static system. stirring increased crystal order and needle thickness, decreased unit cell edge length a, but not b and c. reduced the separation between the 2 OH-bending vibrations, increased Al substitution and promoted hematite formation.

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