Nitroplumbite (IMA2021-045a), [Pb4(OH)4](NO3)4, is a new mineral discovered at the Burro mine, Slick Rock district, San Miguel County, Colorado, USA. It occurs in a secondary efflorescent assemblage on asphaltite and montroseite- and corvusite-bearing sandstone in association with baryte, chalcomenite, and volborthite. The mineral forms as brown equant (pseudocubic) or colorless bladed crystals. The streak is white, luster is vitreous to greasy, Mohs hardness is 2½, tenacity is brittle, and fracture is conchoidal. Nitroplumbite is optically biaxial (–) with α = 1.790(5), β =1.820 (est.), and γ = 1.823 (est.) (white light); 2Vmeas = 35(1)°; optical orientation: Z = b; nonpleochroic. The calculated density is 5.297 g/cm3 for the empirical formula. Electron probe microanalysis provided the empirical formula Pb4.18(OH)4(N0.98O3)4. Nitroplumbite is monoclinic, space group Ia, a = 18.3471(7), b = 17.3057(4), c = 18.6698(8) Å, β = 91.872(3)°, V = 5924.7(4) Å3, and Z = 16. The crystal structure (R1 = 0.0509 for 11161 I > 2σI reflections) is the same as that previously determined for its synthetic analogue. It consists of isolated, internally bonded cubane-like [Pb4(OH)4]4+ clusters and isolated (NO3)– groups that are linked together by long Pb–O bonds and hydrogen bonds.