The new mineral eleomelanite, (K2Pb)Cu4O2(SO4)4, was found in the Arsenatnaya fumarole on the Second scoria cone of the Northern Breakthrough of the Great Tolbachik Fissure Eruption, Tolbachik Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. It is associated with euchlorine, fedotovite, wulffite, chalcocyanite, dolerophanite, dravertite, hermannjahnite, alumoklyuchevskite, klyuchevskite, piypite, cryptochalcite, cesiodymite, anglesite, langbeinite, calciolangbeinite, metathénardite, belomarinaite, aphthitalite, krasheninnikovite, steklite, anhydrite, hematite, tenorite, sanidine, sylvite, halite, lammerite, urusovite, and gold. Eleomelanite occurs as interrupted crusts up to 6 mm across and up to 0.3 mm thick consisting of equant, prismatic, or tabular crystals or grains up to 0.3 mm. It is translucent and black. The luster is oleaginous on crystal faces and vitreous on a cleavage surface. Dcalc is 3.790 g/cm3. Eleomelanite is optically biaxial (–), α 1.646(3), β 1.715(6), γ 1.734(6), 2Vmeas. = 60(15)°. The chemical composition (wt.%, electron-microprobe) is K2O 9.62, Rb2O 0.49, Cs2O 0.24, CaO 1.23, CuO 35.28, PbO 19.25, SO3 34.78, total 100.89. The empirical formula calculated based on 18 O apfu is (K1.88Pb0.79Ca0.20Rb0.05Cs0.02)Σ2.94Cu4.07S3.99O18. Eleomelanite is monoclinic, P21/n, a 9.3986(3), b 4.8911(1), c 18.2293(5) Å, β 104.409(3)°, V 811.63(4) Å3, and Z = 2. The strongest reflections of the powder XRD pattern [d,Å(I)(hkl)] are: 7.38(44)(101), 3.699(78)(112), , 3.173(40)(211), 2.915(35)(114), 2.838(35)(204), , and . The crystal structure was solved using single-crystal XRD data, R1 = 4.78%. It is based on heteropolyhedral Cu–S–O chains composed of Cu-centered polyhedra with [4+1+1] Cu2+ coordination and SO4 tetrahedra. Adjacent Cu–S–O chains are connected via chains of (K,Pb)O8 and KO10 polyhedra. Eleomelanite belongs to a novel structure type but has common structural features with klyuchevskite, alumoklyuchevskite, wulffite, parawulffite, and piypite. The name is derived from the Greek ελαιν (eleon), oil, and μλας (melas), black, due to its black color and oleaginous luster on crystal faces that are uncommon for sulfate minerals.