Xenoliths and xenocrysts of mantle material from kimberlite dikes located underground at the Certac Au mine, Québec, in the eastern Superior Craton, were studied in terms of the major element composition of their constituent minerals. The kimberlite was dated at 1151 ± 46 Ma by the U-Pb perovskite method. This suite thus provides a rare glimpse into the Mesoproterozoic mantle of the Superior Craton. Two parageneses of mantle material unrelated to the kimberlite magmatism occur: (1) an olivine + ilmenite ± magnetite association characterized by relatively Fe-rich olivine (Mg# = 0.68–0.84) and ilmenite enriched in Mg and Cr (4–13 wt.% MgO, Cr2O3 up to 3 wt.%), and (2) spinel peridotite characterized by Mg-rich olivine (Mg# = 0.91–0.94). The Fe-rich association is interpreted as a magmatic cumulate likely unrelated to the kimberlite. No mantle-derived garnet occurs in the xenoliths or as xenocrysts. The presence of Cr-rich spinel (Cr# = 0.84–0.98) in high temperature (860–953 °C) chromite peridotite indicates bulk compositions too depleted in Al for garnet to be stable, although geothermometry suggests they equilibrated at depths corresponding to garnet stability (90–131 km, depending on the geothermal gradient). Alternatively, the presence of phlogopite in two of the three high temperature (i.e., deepest) chromite peridotites suggests the absence of garnet and presence of low-Al chromite may have been caused by metasomatism from a K-rich fluid that replaced garnet with phlogopite + clinopyroxene ± chromite. Less depletion at shallower depths is indicated by a chromite (Cr# = 0.60) dunite that equilibrated at 831 °C and a low temperature (752 °C) Mg-Al-spinel lherzolite.