The rare and critical metals (e.g., Li, Be, B, Cs) are vital to modern and evolving green technology, and are deemed important because of their irreplaceability, important end uses, and significant potential for supply restrictions as a result of social, political, technological, economic factors (Jowitt et al. 2018). Although many significant known resources exist for the majority of these metals, these resources are only exploited on a limited basis. Importantly, many of these resources are non-domestic, meaning the U.S. could be potentially at risk of import restrictions. Significant gaps also remain in our understanding of...

You do not currently have access to this article.