Abstract

The Late-Proterozoic Sveconorwegian pegmatite province in southern Norway and southwest Sweden hosts seven rare-element pegmatite districts with more than 5000 rare-element pegmatites. Most of these pegmatites with Niobium-Yttrium-Fluorine (NYF) signature are not related to a parental granite, but instead occur in areas of high-grade metamorphism and are the result of migmatization and local melt collection. There are three groups of pegmatites: (1) rare-element pegmatites related to HP-HT high-grade metamorphism associated with the assembly of the Sveconorwegian orogen; (2) rare-element pegmatites related to post-orogenic extension with LP-HT granulites; and (3) rare-element pegmatites related to granite magmatism during post-orogenic extension.

The pegmatite formation principally comprises four periods restricted to certain tectono-metamorphic domains: (I) 1094–1060 Ma (Bamble sector); (II) 1041–1030 Ma (Idefjord terrane); (III) 992–984 Ma (Idefjord terrane, Rogaland-Hardangervidda-Telemark sector); and (IV) 922–901 Ma (Rogaland-Hardangervidda-Telemark and Bamble sectors). The observed relationships between pegmatite formation and regional high-grade metamorphism reveal that the majority of Sveconorwegian pegmatites are formed by anatexis, either by crustal stacking during different stages of continental/terrane collision (HP metamorphism) (periods I to III), or by mafic magma underplating (HT metamorphism) during orogenic extension (period IV). In several provinces that have been affected both by early HP metamorphism during continental collision and by late HT metamorphism during crustal extension, there may occur several generations of pegmatites that show mineralogical and geochemical affinity, even though they formed during several different periods. In addition, the results imply that the majority of Sveconorwegian NYF pegmatites are not necessarily formed in an anorogenic setting in relation to A-type magmatism, but in compressional or extensional orogenic settings unrelated to pluton-scale magmatism. In light of this, the genetic criteria of the pegmatite family classification scheme [NYF versus Lithium-Cesium-Tantalum (LCT)] will have to be re-evaluated.

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