The mineralogical and petrological richness of South America is outstanding. The continent hosts the type localities of nearly 200 minerals, as well as rocks that range from andesite to jacupirangite, and from itabirite to itacolumite. Mineral districts such as the Brazilian pegmatite fields of Minas Gerais, the spectacular rare-earth deposits of Poços de Caldas, the porphyry copper belt of Chile, the tin veins of Bolivia, the bizzare evaporites and brines of the Bolivian and Chilean salars, the polymetallic resources of Peru, and the emerald mines of Colombia have few counterparts elsewhere. Yet, the avid mineralogist-petrologist will only have his appetite...

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