The Långban dolomite-hosted iron–manganese deposit, situated in central Sweden, is one of the most mineral-rich sites in the world, with about 270 different species. It is the type locality of nearly 70 of these, and for more than 20 species, Långban is the only known locality. There is now a general agreement that the deposit is of exhalative-sedimentary origin. The main reasons for the diversity of mineral phases are (1) the unusual enrichment in elements like Ba, As, Sb, Pb, B and Be in a silica-undersaturated environment, and (2) the broad range of crystallization temperatures, producing skarn minerals formed at...

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