Frank Hawthorne began his career working on the crystal chemistry of amphiboles at McMaster University. At that time, there were many significant structural and crystal-chemical problems to be solved in this group of minerals. These problems were regarded as some of the most intractable in the mineralogical sciences. To solve these problems, he utilized a wide variety of experimental techniques (X-ray and neutron diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy), and rapidly became recognized as the leader in this field. The results of these studies were eventually summarized in his outstanding 300-page paper on amphiboles, for which he was awarded the Hawley...

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