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In this chapter, we describe the hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC), which is specifically designed for experiments on systems with aqueous fluids to temperatures up to ~1000°C and pressures up to a few GPa to tens of GPa. This cell permits optical observation of the sample and the in situ determination of properties by ‘photon-in – photon-out’ techniques such as Raman spectroscopy. Several methods for pressure measurement are discussed in detail including the Raman spectroscopic pressure sensors α-quartz, berlinite, zircon, cubic boron nitride (c-BN), and 13C-diamond, the fluorescence sensors ruby forumla, Sm:YAG forumla and SrB4O7:Sm2+, and measurements of phase-transition temperatures. Furthermore, we give an overview of published Raman spectroscopic studies of geological fluids to high pressures and temperatures, in which diamond anvil cells were applied.

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