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The Changbaishan volcanic field located on the Gaima (Gaema, Gaiman) Plateau has witnessed plateau-forming eruptions along with the uplift of the Gaima Plateau. The Tianchi basaltic lava shield volcano was formed at the main peak of Changbaishan, with cone construction eruptions that formed a huge and steep trachytic composite cone on the gentle lava shield. At the peak of the Millennium Eruption (ME), the height of the eruption column reached 25 km and the bulk volume of tephra was about 120 km3. The ME eventually formed Tianchi caldera, after which several eruptions occurred, albeit of a much...

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