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The lowering of a recording device down a borehole for seismic investigation purposes was first reported by F.A. Fessenden (1917). This work was the basis for bore-hole seismic development in the late 1920s (Barton, 1929). Investigation of horizontal layers and first arrivals (velocity anomalies) in the area of salt domes followed in the 1930s to 1950s (McCollum and LaRue, 1931; Dix, 1939, 1945, 1946; Navarte, 1946; Gardiner, 1949; Holste, 1959).

Using the check shot or velocity surveys, Levin and Lynn (1958) analyzed the recordings of later arrivals beyond the time of the first arrival (primary downgoing wave). Their work was followed by a major investigation by Gal’perin (1974). The vertical seismic profile (VSP) techniques evolved from these early seismic/borehole studies.

Kennett et al. (1980) presented one of the earlier comprehensive discussions of the processing and utility of vertical seismic profile data. In this paper, higher frequency VSP data were compared with suface-seismic data for the purposes of seismic event correlation. Multiple reflection identification using the downgoing waves, surce pulse deconvolution, and prediction of reflections ahead of the bit were also examined.

More recently, Hardage (1985) prepared an excellent comprehensive summary of the utility of the seismic profiling technique. This author established the basic guidelines for VSP interpretation. The benefit of the VSP in terms of understanding corresponding geologic logs and for providing additional seismic interpretational insight was reviewed by Stewart and DiSiena (1989). DiSiena et al. (1981, 1984) and Toksöz and Stewart (1984) detailed the utility of recording three-component data in the borehole.

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