Published:January 01, 1996
The lowering of a recording device down a borehole for seismic investigation purposes was first reported by F.A. Fessenden (1917). This work was the basis for bore-hole seismic development in the late 1920s (Barton, 1929). Investigation of horizontal layers and first arrivals (velocity anomalies) in the area of salt domes followed in the 1930s to 1950s (McCollum and LaRue, 1931; Dix, 1939, 1945, 1946; Navarte, 1946; Gardiner, 1949; Holste, 1959).
Using the check shot or velocity surveys, Levin and Lynn (1958) analyzed the recordings of later arrivals beyond the time of the first arrival (primary downgoing wave). Their work was followed by a major investigation by Gal’perin (1974). The vertical seismic profile (VSP) techniques evolved from these early seismic/borehole studies.
Kennett et al. (1980) presented one of the earlier comprehensive discussions of the processing and utility of vertical seismic profile data. In this paper, higher frequency VSP data were compared with suface-seismic data for the purposes of seismic event correlation. Multiple reflection identification using the downgoing waves, surce pulse deconvolution, and prediction of reflections ahead of the bit were also examined.
More recently, Hardage (1985) prepared an excellent comprehensive summary of the utility of the seismic profiling technique. This author established the basic guidelines for VSP interpretation. The benefit of the VSP in terms of understanding corresponding geologic logs and for providing additional seismic interpretational insight was reviewed by Stewart and DiSiena (1989). DiSiena et al. (1981, 1984) and Toksöz and Stewart (1984) detailed the utility of recording three-component data in the borehole.
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VSP Interpretive Processing: Theory and Practice
With more than 75 color illustrations, this book demonstrates the utility of VSP processing and interpretation. In Chapter 1, ȜAcquisition Considerations,” the authors describe how VSP surveys differ from other borehole and surface seismic methods and define the geometries and nomenclatures used throughout the book. In Chapter 2, “Integrated Interpretive Processing,” they describe the interpretive processing methodology and processing procedures applied to the VSP data incorporated into the case histories in Chapters 3 through 6. The basic mathematics behind the wavefield separation, deconvolution, and far-offset processing of VSP data are reviewed in more detail in the appendix. Chapters 3 through 6 are case studies of carbonate reef and sandstone exploration plays from the western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. For each case study, the authors discuss the relevant geology and the interpretation of the existing seismic coverage prior to the drilling of the VSP well, the well results and the rationale behind recording the VSP data, the reevaluation of the surfaceseismic coverage based on the VSP and associated well control, and the utility of the respective VSP survey.