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Book Chapter

Poststack Migration and Applications

Published:
January 01, 1997

Abstract

Most of the original applications of reverse-time migration were on CMP (common midpoint) stacked data. The method found use in oil exploration near steeply dipping salt intrusions (Whitmore and Lines, 1986; Lines et al., 1995; Mufti et al., 1996) and overthrust fold belts (Whitmore, 1983; Bording et al., 1987; Lines, 1993; and Wu et al., 1996). To the extent that the CMP stacked data represent the zero-offset sections of an exploding reflector, model studies (eg. Bording et al., 1987) show that reverse-time migration can do an excellent job.

CMP stacking encounters its worst problems in representing CRP (common reflection point) data whenever geological structures deviate most from at layer geometries. With the fact that CMP does not equal CRP for such geometries, one might wonder why stacking would work at all. However, fortunately for geophysicists, CMP stacking is reasonably robust for mildly complex structures, as shown by Kelly et al. (1982).

Another method of alleviating the problems of steep dip in processing is the use of DMO (dip-moveout). Ideally the use of NMO (normal moveout) corrections used with DMO corrections and CMP stacking allows poststack migration to perform as well as prestack migration at considerably less expense. The benefits and advantages of using DMO are summarized by Hale (1991).

The most general (and most expensive) imaging technique which is available in the migration tool box is the process of prestack depth migration. The use of this powerful method necessitates the use of accurate velocity models. In fact, as we will see in the next chapter, prestack reverse-time depth migration will be used as a velocity analysis tool.

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Society of Exploration Geophysicists Course Notes

Seismic Modeling and Imaging with the Complete Wave Equation

Ralph Phillip Bording
Ralph Phillip Bording
Institute for Geophysics University of Texas at Austin
Austin, Texas
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Larry R. Lines
Larry R. Lines
Department of Geology and Geophysics University of Calgary
Calgary, Alberta
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Society of Exploration Geophysicists
Volume
8
ISBN electronic:
9781560801870
Publication date:
January 01, 1997

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