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Where the velocity is constant, raypaths are straight lines. In Figure 4.1a, a wave travels from the source S to the receiver R after being reflected at C, the angle of incidence a being equal to the angle of reflection. The image point I (or virtual source) is the point on the perpendicular from S to the reflector as far below the reflector as S is above. The line IR is equivalent to the actual path SCR.

The difference between the travel time t0 for a receiver at the source S and the travel time t for a receiver at an offset x (xbeing the source-to-geophone separation) is called the normal moveout, ΔtNMO. We can get an approximate value of ΔtNMO by expanding

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