Most exploration seismology involves the analysis of P-wave reflections. For waves traveling at near-vertical incidence in a horizontally layered medium, these reflections represent most of the energy recorded by vertical geophones. In marine recording with hydrophone streamers, seismic recordings will consist essentially of P-waves. Conventional seismology has analyzed P-wave reflections with considerable success. Acoustic approximations to the general theories of elastic waves have been fruitful.
Nevertheless, a more complete description of earth's properties is possible through elastic-wave theory, which requires that we consider both P-waves and shear (S-) waves. For this analysis, we use multicomponent recording rather than conventional vertical-component recording.
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Fundamentals of Geophysical Interpretation
Fundamentals of Geophysical Interpretation, SEG Geophysical Monograph Series No. 13, is a practical handbook for the petroleum geophysicist. Fundamental concepts are explained using heuristic descriptions of seismic modeling, deconvolution, depth migration, and tomography. Pitfalls in processing and contouring are described briefly. Applications include petroleum exploration of carbonate reefs, salt intrusions, and overthrust faults. The book includes past, present, and possible future developments in time-lapse seismology, borehole geophysics, multicomponent seismology, and integrated reservoir characterization.