Several factors will cause oil and gas producers to focus increasingly on characterization of petroleum reservoirs in the near future. Experts predict that more than 95% of the world's oil production in the 21st century will come from existing fields. Recovery rates from present producing fields are often quite modest. Much less than 50% of available oil usually is produced from a reservoir. Moreover, there is still an insatiable thirst for oil and gas consumption among the world's population. Petroleum is also necessary for the production of many chemicals and plastics. All these factors impact the need for enhanced recovery of petroleum. Increased production will be made possible only through effective reservoir characterization.
Reservoir characterization is a multidisciplinary field that attempts to describe petroleum deposits and the nature of the rocks that contain hydrocarbons. Reservoir characterization relies on expertise from petroleum engineering, geology, and geophysics. The integration of information from these fields focuses on various aspects of the reservoir. The formation of reservoir-characterization teams requires the synergistic teamwork of engineers, geologists, and geophysicists. Books that describe this emerging science include those by Sheriff (1992) and by Gadallah (1994).
The fundamental goals of reservoir characterization are to determine the following:
presence of hydrocarbons
Several factors will cause oil and gas producers to focus increasingly on characterization of petroleum reservoirs in the near future. Experts predict that more than 95% of the world's oil production in the 21st century will come
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Fundamentals of Geophysical Interpretation
Fundamentals of Geophysical Interpretation, SEG Geophysical Monograph Series No. 13, is a practical handbook for the petroleum geophysicist. Fundamental concepts are explained using heuristic descriptions of seismic modeling, deconvolution, depth migration, and tomography. Pitfalls in processing and contouring are described briefly. Applications include petroleum exploration of carbonate reefs, salt intrusions, and overthrust faults. The book includes past, present, and possible future developments in time-lapse seismology, borehole geophysics, multicomponent seismology, and integrated reservoir characterization.