3D Reflection Seismology
We live in a world of three spatial dimensions. This is crucial to remember when we examine geologic plays and petroleum traps. We interpret individual seismic lines as though the earth were varying in two dimensions beneath these profiles, but we do so with the risk that “out-of-plane” reflections can occur. To solve the problem of 3D geologic interpretations, the industry now uses areal arrays of sources and receivers at the surface rather than widely spaced profiles. These seismic surveys allow us to accurately image 3D spatial variations in geology beneath the earth's surface. Brown (1991) and Liner (1999) have given excellent summaries of 3D interpretation and its importance.
Figures & Tables
Fundamentals of Geophysical Interpretation, SEG Geophysical Monograph Series No. 13, is a practical handbook for the petroleum geophysicist. Fundamental concepts are explained using heuristic descriptions of seismic modeling, deconvolution, depth migration, and tomography. Pitfalls in processing and contouring are described briefly. Applications include petroleum exploration of carbonate reefs, salt intrusions, and overthrust faults. The book includes past, present, and possible future developments in time-lapse seismology, borehole geophysics, multicomponent seismology, and integrated reservoir characterization.