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Most of, if not all, the evidence for the attainment of UHP conditions by metamorphic rocks is a mineralogical one. Some minerals by their nature, composition, texture or reactions, may be specific of such conditions and are briefly reviewed here. As pressure, an intensive parameter, has direct influence on volume, this mineralogical survey is organised on a structural basis: we emphasised the more or less efficient packing of atoms into crystal structures. Then chemical, petrological or phase stability data are presented, in the hope of offering a slightly different perspective from earlier reviews by Smith (1988), Chopin & Sobolev (1995), Liou et al. (1998), Carswell & Zhang (1999) and Zhang & Liou (2000). The reader is explicitly referred to the latter three in addition to this review, in order to have the most complete coverage.

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