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In the Western Alps, two tectonic units have unquestionably experienced ultrahigh pressure metamorphism (UHPM): the continental Brossasco-Isasca Unit of the southern Dora-Maira Massif, in which coesite was first reported by Chopin (1984), and the ocean-derived Lago di Cignana Unit of the Piemonte zone, in which coesite was first reported by Reinecke (1991). In both units the UHPM recrystallisation, acquired during the early stages of the Alpine orogeny, is largely obliterated by a late Alpine greenschist facies retrogression, more pervasive in the felsic lithologies.


Eskola (1921) drew attention to some of the aesthetically impressive eclogites and garnet peridotites that outcrop in the coastal region of west Norway between Bergen and Trondheim. These occurrences lie within the so-called Western Gneiss Region (WGR), the lowest exposed structural level in the southern Scandinavian Caledonides. The WGR is now recognised as a composite tectono-metamorphic terrane that mostly comprises Proterozoic autochthonous to para-autochthonous basement rocks with minor late Proterozoic cover belonging to the leading edge of the Baltic Plate, along with infolds of the main, outboard-derived Caledonian allochthon. Much of this composite edifice experienced short-lived deep level subduction beneath the Laurentian Plate during the Scandian phase of the Caledonian orogeny. Several more recent papers, including those by Andersen et al, (1991); Carswell et al. (2003a); Cuthbert et al. (1983, 2000); Cuthbert & Carswell (1990); Dewey et al. (1993); Griffin et al. (1985); Krogh & Carswell (1995); Smith (1995), have considered the stabilisation and exhumation of eclogites and other cofacial high pressure (HP) and ultrahigh pressure (UHP) rocks in this region, within the context of the tectono-metamorphic development of this segment of the Scandinavian Caledonides.

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