Skip to Main Content

Abstract

Ultrahigh pressure metamorphism (UHPM) is an important type of orogenic metamorphism that over recent years has been increasingly recognised as a characteristic, though poorly preserved, feature of many Phanerozoic plate collision zones. UHPM can be defined as “a type of metamorphism that occurs at very high lithostaticpressures within the eclogite facies but above the stability field of quartz”.

Ultrahigh pressure metamorphism (UHPM) is an important type of orogenic metamorphism that over recent years has been increasingly recognised as a characteristic, though poorly preserved, feature of many Phanerozoic plate collision zones. UHPM can be defined as “a type of metamorphism that occurs at very high lithostaticpressures within the eclogite facies but above the stability field of quartz”.

Figure 1 shows the currently recognised UHPM rock occurrences within exposed metamorphic terranes on a simplified global geotectonic map. The following is a list of these occurrences (number keyed to Fig. 1) together with selected primary or review references that provide further details:

  1. Dora-Maira Massif, Western Alps (Chopin, 1984; Chopin et al., 1991).

  2. Zermatt-Saas Zone, Western Alps (Reinecke, 1991; van der Klauw et al., 1997).

  3. Leaota Massif, South Carpathians (Săbău, 2000).

  4. Rhodope Metamorphic Province, Northern Greece (Mposkos & Kostopoulos, 2001).

  5. Western Gneiss Region, Norwegian Caledonides (Smith, 1988; Wain, 1997; Cuthbert et al., 2000).

  6. Northeast Greenland Caledonides (Gilotti & Krogh Ravna, 2002)

  7. Saxonian Erzgebirge, Germany (Massonne, 1999, 2001; Nasdala & Massonne, 2000).

  8. Sudetes Mountains, SW Poland (Bakun-Czubarow, 1991, 1992).

  9. Maksyutov Complex, Southern Urals (Leech & Ernst, 1998).

  10. Kokchetav Massif, Kazakhstan (Sobolev & Shatsky, 1990; Shatsky et al., 1995).

  11. Tian Shan, Kyrghyzstan/China (Tagiri et al., 1995; Zhang et al., 2002).

  12. Kaghan Valley, Pakistan Himalaya (O'Brien et al., 2001; Treloar et al., 2003).

  13. Tso-Morari Complex, eastern Lakakh, Indian Himalaya (Sachan & Mukherjee, 2003).

  14. Su-Lu Terrane, Eastern China (Zhang et al., 1995; Zhang & Liou, 1998)

  15. Dabie Shan, Central China (Wang et al., 1989; Wang & Liou, 1991; Okay, 1993; Wang et al., 1995).

  16. North Qinling, Central China (Liu et al., 2003b).

  17. North Qaidam, NE Tibet Plateau, China (Yang et al., 2002; Song et al., 2003).

  18. South Altyn Tagh, NE China (Liu et al., 2001, 2003a).

  19. Bantimala Complex, Central Sulawezi, Indonesia (Parkinson et al., 1998).

  20. Pan-African Nappes of Northern Mali, West Africa (Caby, 1994).

  21. Pan-African Nappes of Minas Gerais State, SE Brazil (Parkinson et al., 2001).

  22. Lanterman Range, North Victoria Land, Antarctica - not shown on Figure 1 (Ghiribelli et al., 2001; Palmeri et al., 2003).

Fig. 1.

Simplified global geotectonic map showing the recognised occurrences of UHPM rocks within exposed metamorphic terranes, with the localities number keyed to the text.

Fig. 1.

Simplified global geotectonic map showing the recognised occurrences of UHPM rocks within exposed metamorphic terranes, with the localities number keyed to the text.

Some of these occurrences (most notably in the Maksyutov Complex of the Southern Urals, the Sudetes of Poland, the South Carpathians of Romania, and the Lanterman Range of Antarctica) are currently less certain than the others and require further confirmatory evidence.

The UHPM rock-bearing collision belt across central China is complex and disrupted. At its eastern end the well-documented occurrences in the Su-Lu and Dabie Shan regions are considered to be parts of the same Triassic plate collision belt that has been offset by substantial sinistral strike-slip along the NE trending Tanlu Fault. This UHPM belt may extend some 400-500 km west into the North Qinling Mountains but the separate UHPM occurrences some 1400-2400 km further west on the northern margin of the Qaidam Massif and in the South Altyn Tagh are thought to have been stabilised within an older Palaeozoic collision belt.

In the majority of the well-established occurrences of UHPM rocks, mineral indicators of UHPM are best preserved in metabasic rocks (eclogites) but in a few instances also in meta-sedimentary schists and calc-silicate gneisses.

In most instances it has been the identification of preserved inclusions of coesite, within relatively robust minerals such as garnet and zircon, that has led to the positive recognition that the rocks have experienced UHPM conditions. Indications are, however, that the metastable survival of coesite grains within exhumed UHPM terranes is invariably very limited. Thus it is often necessary to resort to indirect petrographic evidence that coesite was previously stable. This takes the form of inclusions of polycrystalline quartz, sometimes with a highly distinctive palisade microstructure, considered to have pseudomorphically replaced previous coesite grains (see for example Carswell & Zhang, 1999). Corroborative support for this interpretation is often provided by observations of radial expansion fractures within the mineral enclosing the polycrystalline quartz inclusion, reflecting the roughly 10% volume increase caused by the replacement of the higher-pressure silica polymorph coesite by a-quartz.

In a few UHPM terranes, most notably in the Kokchetav Massif of Kazakhstan and the Erzgebirge in Germany, preserved micro-inclusions of diamond are the most obvious mineral indicator although supportive evidence of rarer coesite preservation has also been documented.

Most UHPM occurrences occur within recognised continental crust sequences that characteristically contain large volumes of granitic-granodioritic orthogneisses. Such UHPM terranes are thus interpreted to have formed in “A-type” continent-continent plate collision zones (as in the Himalayas) where the leading edge of one plate has experienced transient subduction down to at least 90 km. It may well be that in such instances the relatively “dry” orthogneisses have largely failed to react and convert to UHPM mineralogies in response to the deep level subduction.

Consequently, the relative buoyancy of the metastably preserved low pressure mineralogies in such orthogneisses may be a crucial geodynamic factor in driving the ensuing rapid exhumation of such UHPM terranes, so enabling the preservation (albeit limited) of the mineralogical evidence for UHPM in those lithologies that did respond and react to the imposed, short-lived, UHP conditions. Such UHPM terranes often even show only partial eclogitisation of metabasic igneous rocks and signal that with the absence or only limited availability of fluid to promote reactivity, the progress of prograde (subduction-related) as well as retrograde (exhumation-related) metamorphic reactions may be severely limited.

It thus seems likely that kinetic controls on mineral reactivity and metastability explain why UHPM terranes invariably contain only small volumes of recognisable UHPM rocks within rock sequences dominated by much lower pressure mineral parageneses. Certainly even if felsic rocks have been transformed into UHP mineralogies during deep subduction then the mineralogical evidence is much less likely to survive their subsequent exhumation than in any associated metabasic rocks (eclogites). Exhumation-related deformation, as evidenced by widely developed mylonitic fabrics, is likely to be strongly partitioned into the quartzo-feldspathic rocks (gneisses) leading to effectively pervasive overprinting by retrograde, lower pressure mineral assemblages, mostly of amphibolite facies. Also in such rocks the dehydration breakdown during exhumation of phengitic mica, likely to have been a volumetrically important phase under UHPM conditions, can be expected to generate a hydrous fluid phase that would promote other retrograde mineral reactions.

Currently only two of the recognised UHPM occurrences (namely in the Zermatt-Saas Zone of the Western Alps and in Sulawesi, Indonesia) are interpreted to have formed in deeply subducted oceanic crust sequences. Whilst expectations are that in “B-type” subduction zones some oceanic crust rocks will customarily be subducted down into the realm of UHPM, the recovery of such UHPM rocks back up to the Earth's surface is likely to be a rare event requiring unusual, as yet unclear, geotectonic circumstances.

UHPM has now been recognised as an important feature of the major Phanerozoic continental plate collision zones, represented by the Caledonian, Variscan/Hercynian, Alpine and Himalayan orogenic belts. The UHPM rocks in the correlative Pan-African nappes of Northern Mali and SE Brazil are somewhat older, i.e. Late Precambrian/ Neoproterozoic, and thought to have formed in a continental plate collision zone at around 630-640 Ma. The lack of recognised older UHPM rocks within the geological record suggests that prior to around 650 Ma the continental lithospheric plates in particular may not have been cool, thick and strong enough to enable continental crust rocks to be both subducted down to sufficient depths and then recovered back to the surface with at least partial survival of UHPM mineralogies.

This volume commences with in-depth reviews of UHPM rocks in four of the best documented occurrences - the Western Alps, the Western Gneiss Region of Norway, the Kokchetav Massif of Kazakhstan and the Dabie Shan-Su Lu orogen in central China. This is followed by an account of the more recently discovered occurrences in the Saxonian Erzgebirge in central Europe and in the Kaghan Valley of the Pakistan Himalaya.

Much of the rest of this volume presents detailed considerations of various aspects that are important to our understanding and interpretation of UHPM rock occurrences. These, in turn, are on mineral reactions and mineral chemistry; application of appropriate thermobarometric methodologies; constraints on coronitic and pseudomorphic mineral reactions; relevant experimental petrology data; geochronological dating; geochemistry and isotopic tracer characterisation of protoliths; pressure-temperature-time paths and modelling of exhumation mechanisms; and on the identification and interpretation of fluid inclusions. There is also a separate review chapter on the occurrences and interpretation of the garnet peridotites that are conspicuous components of several UHPM terranes.

We hope that this state-of-the-art review on UHPM rocks will inspire and excite future generations of Earth Science students and encourage them to tackle the fundamental research challenges imposed by the recognition of exposures of such rocks at the Earth's surface and to appreciate their importance to an enhanced understanding of certain geodynamic processes that control the evolution of our planet.

References

Bakun-Czubarow
,
N.
(
1991
):
On the possibility of occurrence of quartz pseudomorphs after coesite in the eclogite-granulite rock series of the Zlote Mountains in the Sudetes (SW Poland)
.
Arch. Mineral
 .,
47
:
5
16
.
Bakun-Czubarow
,
N.
(
1992
):
Quartz pseudomorphs after coesite and quartz exsolutions in eclogitic omphacites of the Zlote Mountains in the Sudetes (SW Poland)
.
Arch. Mineral
 .,
48
:
3
25
.
Caby
,
R.
(
1994
):
Precambrian coesite from northern Mali: first record and implications for plate tectonics in the trans-Saharan segment of the Pan-African belt
.
Eur. J. Mineral
 .,
6
:
235
244
.
Carswell
,
D.A.
Zhang
,
R.Y.
(
1999
):
Petrographic characteristics and metamorphic evolution of ultra-high pressure eclogites in plate-collision belts
.
Int. Geol. Rev
 .,
41
:
781
798
.
Chopin
,
C.
(
1984
):
Coesite and pure pyrope in high grade blueschists of the Western Alps: a first record and some consequences
.
Contrib. Mineral. Petrol
 .,
86
:
107
118
.
Chopin
,
C.
Henry
,
C.
Marchand
,
A.
(
1991
):
Geology and petrology of the coesite-bearing terrain, Dora Maira Massif, Western Alps
.
Eur. J. Mineral
 .,
3
:
263
291
.
Cuthbert
,
S.J.
Carswell
,
D.A.
Krogh Ravna
,
E.J.
Wain
,
A.
(
2000
):
Eclogites and eclogites in the Western Gneiss Region, Norwegian Caledonides
.
Lithos
 ,
52
:
165
195
.
Ghiribelli
,
B.
Frezzotti
,
M.L.
Palmeri
,
R.
(
2001
):
Coesite in eclogites of the Lanterman Range (Antarctica): evidence from textural and Raman spectroscopy studies
.
Eur. J. Mineral
 .,
14
:
355
360
.
Gilotti
,
J.A.
Krogh Ravna
,
E.J.
(
2002
):
First evidence for ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism in the NorthEast Greenland Caledonides
.
Geology
 ,
30
:
551
554
.
Leech
,
M.L.
Ernst
,
W.G.
(
1998
):
Graphite pseudomorphs after diamond? A carbon isotope and spectroscopic study of graphite cuboids from the Maksyutov Complex, south Ural Mountains, Russia
.
Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta
 ,
62
:
2143
2154
.
Liu
,
L.
Wang
,
Y.
Sun
,
Y.
Xiao
,
P.
Chen
,
D.
Luo
,
J.
Che
,
Z.
(
2001
):
The discovery and significance of magnesite-bearing garnet lherzolite from Altun Eclogite Zone, Western China
. In
Sixth Int. Eclogite Conf., Sept. 1-7, Niihama, Japan, Abstr
 .,
79
80
.
Liu
,
L.
Sun
,
Y.
Wang
,
Y.
Chen
,
D.L.
Luo
,
J.H.
Zhang
,
A.D.
(
2003a
):
Ultrahigh-P evidence for country rocks of the garnet-bearing lherzolite in Altyn Tagh - exsolution of clinopyroxene in the garnet of retrograde eclogite
. In
Alice Wain Memorial Western Norway Eclogite Field Symp., Selje, Western Norway, Abstr. Vol
 .,
81
.
Liu
,
L.
Sun
,
Y.
Chen
,
D.
Zhang
,
A.
Luo
,
J.
(
2003b
):
Discovery of relic majoritic garnet in felsic metamorphic rocks of Qinling complex, north Qinling orogenic belt, China
. In
Alice Wain Memorial Western Norway Eclogite Field Symp., Selje, Western Norway, Abstr. Vol
 .,
82
.
Massonne
,
H.-J.
(
1999
):
A new occurrence of microdiamonds in quartzo-feldspathic rocks of the Saxonian Erzgebirge, Germany, and their metamorphic evolution
. In
Gurney
,
J.J.
Gurney
,
L.G.
Pascoe
,
M.D.
Richardson
,
S.H.
(eds.):
Proc. 7th Int. Kimberlite Conf., Cape Town
 ,
Cape Town
:
Redroof Publ.
,
2
(The Nixon Vol.):
533
539
.
Massonne
,
H.-J.
(
2001
):
First find of coesite in the ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic area of central Erzgebirge, Germany
.
Eur. J. Mineral
 .,
13
:
565
570
.
Mposkos
,
E.D.
Kostopoulos
,
D.K.
(
2001
):
Diamond, former coesite and supersilicic garnet in metasedimentary rocks from the Greek Rhodope: a new ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic province established
.
Earth Planet. Sci. Lett
 .,
192
:
497
506
.
Nasdala
,
L.
Massonne
,
H.-J.
(
2000
):
Microdiamonds from the Saxonian Erzgebirge, Germany: in situ micro-Raman characterisation
.
Eur. J. Mineral
 .,
12
:
495
498
.
O'Brien
,
P.J.
Zotov
,
N.
Law
,
R.D.
Khan
,
M.A.
Jan
,
M.Q.
(
2001
):
Coesite in Himalayan eclogite and implications for models of India-Asia collision
.
Geology
 ,
29
:
435
438
.
Okay
,
A.I.
(
1993
):
Petrology of a diamond and coesite-bearing terrain: Dabie Shan, China
.
Eur. J. Mineral
 .,
5
:
659
675
.
Palmeri
,
R.
Ghiribelli
,
B.
Talarico
,
F.
Ricci
,
C.A.
(
2003
):
Ultra-high-pressure metamorphism in felsic rocks: the garnet-phengite gneisses and quarzites from the Lanterman Range, Antarctica
.
Eur. J. Mineral
 .,
15
:
513
525
.
Parkinson
,
C.D.
Miyazaki
,
K.
Wakita
,
K.
Barber
,
A.J.
Carswell
,
D.A.
(
1998
):
An overview and tectonic synthesis of the pre-Tertiary very-high-pressure metamorphic and associated rocks of Java, Sulawesi and Kalimantan, Indonesia
.
Isl. Arc
 ,
7
:
184
200
.
Parkinson
,
C.D.
Motoki
,
A.
Onishi
,
C.E.
Maruyama
,
S.
(
2001
):
Ultrahigh-pressure pyrope-kyanite granulites and associated eclogites in Neoproterozoic nappes of Southeast Brazil
.
UHPM Workshop 2001, Fluid/slab/mantle interactions andultrahigh-Pminerals
 ,
Waseda Univ.
,
Tokyo
, Abstr. Vol.,
87
90
.
Reinecke
,
T.
(
1991
):
Very-high-pressure metamorphism and uplift of coesite bearing metasediments from the Zermatt-Saas zone, Western Alps
.
Eur. J. Mineral
 .,
3
:
7
17
.
Săbău
,
G.
(
2000
):
A possible UHP-eclogite in the Leaota Mts. (South Carpathians) and its history from high-pressure melting to retrograde inclusion in a subduction melange
.
Lithos
 ,
52
:
253
276
.
Sachan
,
H.K.
Mukherjee
,
B.R.
(
2003
):
Metamorphic and fluid evolution of ultra-high metamorphosed (UHP) crust of Tso-Morari region, Ladakh, Himalaya, (India): constraints from mineral chemistry and fluid inclusions
. In
Alice Wain Memorial Western Norway Eclogite Field Symp., Selje, Western Norway, Abstr. Vol
 .,
124
125
.
Shatsky
,
V.S.
Sobolev
,
N.V.
Vavilov
,
M.A.
(
1995
):
Diamond-bearing metamorphic rocks of the Kokchetav Massif (Northern Kazakhstan)
. In
Coleman
,
R.G.
Wang
,
X.
(eds.):
Ultrahigh pressure metamorphism
 .
Cambridge
:
Cambridge Univ. Press
,
427
455
.
Smith
,
D.C.
(
1988
):
A review of the peculiar mineralogy of the “Norwegian Coesite Eclogite Province”, with crystal-chemical, petrological, geochemical and geodynamic notes and an extensive bibliography
. In
Smith
,
D.C.
(ed.):
Eclogites and eclogite-facies rocks
 .
Amsterdam
:
Elsevier
,
1
206
.
Sobolev
,
N.J.
Shatsky
,
V.S.
(
1990
):
Diamond inclusions in garnet from metamorphic rocks: a new environment for diamond formation
.
Nature
 ,
343
:
742
746
.
Song
,
S.G.
Yang
,
J.S.
Liou
,
J.G.
Shi
,
R.D.
(
2003
):
Metamorphic evolution of the coesite-bearing ultrahigh-pressure terrane in the North Qaidam, northern Tibet, NW. China
.
J. Metamorph. Geol
 .,
21
:
613
644
.
Tagiri
,
M.
Yano
,
T.
Bakirov
,
A.
Yakajima
,
T.
Uchiumi
,
S.
(
1995
):
Mineral parageneses and metamorphic P-T paths of ultrahigh-pressure eclogites from Kyrghyzstan Tien-Shan
.
Isl. Arc
 ,
4
:
280
292
.
Treloar
,
P.J.
O'Brien
,
P.J.
Parrish
,
R.R.
Khan
,
M.A.
(
2003
):
Exhumation of early Tertiary, coesite-bearing eclogites from the Pakistan Himalaya
.
J. Geol. Soc. London
 ,
160
:
367
376
.
Van der Klauw
,
S.N.G.C.
Reinecke
,
T.
Stockhert
,
B.
(
1997
):
Exhumation of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic oceanic crust from Lago di Cignana, Piedmontese zone, western Alps: a structural record in metabasites
.
Lithos
 ,
41
:
79
102
.
Wain
,
A.
(
1997
):
New evidence for coesite in eclogite and gneisses: defining an ultrahigh-pressure province in the Western Gneiss Region of Norway
.
Geology
 ,
25
:
927
930
.
Wang
,
X.
Liou
,
J.C.
(
1991
):
Regional ultrahigh-pressure coesite-bearing eclogitic terrane in central China: evidence from country rocks, gneiss, marble and metapelite
.
Geology
 ,
19
:
933
936
.
Wang
,
X.
Liou
,
J.G.
Mao
,
H.K.
(
1989
):
Coesite-bearing eclogites from the Dabie mountains, central China
.
Geology
 ,
17
:
1085
1088
.
Wang
,
X.
Zhang
,
R.
Liou
,
J.G.
(
1995
):
UHPM terrane in East Central China
. In
Coleman
,
R.G.
Wang
,
X.
(eds.):
Ultrahigh pressure metamorphism
 .
Cambridge
:
Cambridge Univ. Press
,
356
390
.
Yang
,
J.
Xu
,
Z.
Zhang
,
J.
Song
,
S.
Wu
,
C.
Shi
,
R.
Li
,
H.
Brunel
,
M.
(
2002
):
Early Palaeozoic North Qaidam UHP metamorphic belt on the north-eastern Tibetan plateau and a paired subduction zone
.
Terra Nova
 ,
14
:
397
404
.
Zhang
,
R.Y.
Liou
,
J.G.
(
1998
):
Ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism of the Sulu terrane, eastern China: a prospective view
.
Cont. Geodyn
 .,
3
:
32
53
.
Zhang
,
R.Y.
Hirajima
,
T.
Banno
,
S.
Cong
,
B.
Liou
,
J.G.
(
1995
):
Petrology of ultrahigh-pressure rocks from the southern Su-Lu region, eastern China
.
J. Metamorph. Geol
 .,
13
:
659
675
.
Zhang
,
L.
Ellis
,
D.J.
Jiang
,
W.
(
2002
):
Ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism in western Tianshan: Part I. Evidence from inclusions of coesite pseudomorphs in garnet and from quartz exsolution lamellae in omphacite in eclogites
.
Am. Mineral
 .,
87
:
853
860
.

Figures & Tables

Contents

GeoRef

References

References

Bakun-Czubarow
,
N.
(
1991
):
On the possibility of occurrence of quartz pseudomorphs after coesite in the eclogite-granulite rock series of the Zlote Mountains in the Sudetes (SW Poland)
.
Arch. Mineral
 .,
47
:
5
16
.
Bakun-Czubarow
,
N.
(
1992
):
Quartz pseudomorphs after coesite and quartz exsolutions in eclogitic omphacites of the Zlote Mountains in the Sudetes (SW Poland)
.
Arch. Mineral
 .,
48
:
3
25
.
Caby
,
R.
(
1994
):
Precambrian coesite from northern Mali: first record and implications for plate tectonics in the trans-Saharan segment of the Pan-African belt
.
Eur. J. Mineral
 .,
6
:
235
244
.
Carswell
,
D.A.
Zhang
,
R.Y.
(
1999
):
Petrographic characteristics and metamorphic evolution of ultra-high pressure eclogites in plate-collision belts
.
Int. Geol. Rev
 .,
41
:
781
798
.
Chopin
,
C.
(
1984
):
Coesite and pure pyrope in high grade blueschists of the Western Alps: a first record and some consequences
.
Contrib. Mineral. Petrol
 .,
86
:
107
118
.
Chopin
,
C.
Henry
,
C.
Marchand
,
A.
(
1991
):
Geology and petrology of the coesite-bearing terrain, Dora Maira Massif, Western Alps
.
Eur. J. Mineral
 .,
3
:
263
291
.
Cuthbert
,
S.J.
Carswell
,
D.A.
Krogh Ravna
,
E.J.
Wain
,
A.
(
2000
):
Eclogites and eclogites in the Western Gneiss Region, Norwegian Caledonides
.
Lithos
 ,
52
:
165
195
.
Ghiribelli
,
B.
Frezzotti
,
M.L.
Palmeri
,
R.
(
2001
):
Coesite in eclogites of the Lanterman Range (Antarctica): evidence from textural and Raman spectroscopy studies
.
Eur. J. Mineral
 .,
14
:
355
360
.
Gilotti
,
J.A.
Krogh Ravna
,
E.J.
(
2002
):
First evidence for ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism in the NorthEast Greenland Caledonides
.
Geology
 ,
30
:
551
554
.
Leech
,
M.L.
Ernst
,
W.G.
(
1998
):
Graphite pseudomorphs after diamond? A carbon isotope and spectroscopic study of graphite cuboids from the Maksyutov Complex, south Ural Mountains, Russia
.
Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta
 ,
62
:
2143
2154
.
Liu
,
L.
Wang
,
Y.
Sun
,
Y.
Xiao
,
P.
Chen
,
D.
Luo
,
J.
Che
,
Z.
(
2001
):
The discovery and significance of magnesite-bearing garnet lherzolite from Altun Eclogite Zone, Western China
. In
Sixth Int. Eclogite Conf., Sept. 1-7, Niihama, Japan, Abstr
 .,
79
80
.
Liu
,
L.
Sun
,
Y.
Wang
,
Y.
Chen
,
D.L.
Luo
,
J.H.
Zhang
,
A.D.
(
2003a
):
Ultrahigh-P evidence for country rocks of the garnet-bearing lherzolite in Altyn Tagh - exsolution of clinopyroxene in the garnet of retrograde eclogite
. In
Alice Wain Memorial Western Norway Eclogite Field Symp., Selje, Western Norway, Abstr. Vol
 .,
81
.
Liu
,
L.
Sun
,
Y.
Chen
,
D.
Zhang
,
A.
Luo
,
J.
(
2003b
):
Discovery of relic majoritic garnet in felsic metamorphic rocks of Qinling complex, north Qinling orogenic belt, China
. In
Alice Wain Memorial Western Norway Eclogite Field Symp., Selje, Western Norway, Abstr. Vol
 .,
82
.
Massonne
,
H.-J.
(
1999
):
A new occurrence of microdiamonds in quartzo-feldspathic rocks of the Saxonian Erzgebirge, Germany, and their metamorphic evolution
. In
Gurney
,
J.J.
Gurney
,
L.G.
Pascoe
,
M.D.
Richardson
,
S.H.
(eds.):
Proc. 7th Int. Kimberlite Conf., Cape Town
 ,
Cape Town
:
Redroof Publ.
,
2
(The Nixon Vol.):
533
539
.
Massonne
,
H.-J.
(
2001
):
First find of coesite in the ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic area of central Erzgebirge, Germany
.
Eur. J. Mineral
 .,
13
:
565
570
.
Mposkos
,
E.D.
Kostopoulos
,
D.K.
(
2001
):
Diamond, former coesite and supersilicic garnet in metasedimentary rocks from the Greek Rhodope: a new ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic province established
.
Earth Planet. Sci. Lett
 .,
192
:
497
506
.
Nasdala
,
L.
Massonne
,
H.-J.
(
2000
):
Microdiamonds from the Saxonian Erzgebirge, Germany: in situ micro-Raman characterisation
.
Eur. J. Mineral
 .,
12
:
495
498
.
O'Brien
,
P.J.
Zotov
,
N.
Law
,
R.D.
Khan
,
M.A.
Jan
,
M.Q.
(
2001
):
Coesite in Himalayan eclogite and implications for models of India-Asia collision
.
Geology
 ,
29
:
435
438
.
Okay
,
A.I.
(
1993
):
Petrology of a diamond and coesite-bearing terrain: Dabie Shan, China
.
Eur. J. Mineral
 .,
5
:
659
675
.
Palmeri
,
R.
Ghiribelli
,
B.
Talarico
,
F.
Ricci
,
C.A.
(
2003
):
Ultra-high-pressure metamorphism in felsic rocks: the garnet-phengite gneisses and quarzites from the Lanterman Range, Antarctica
.
Eur. J. Mineral
 .,
15
:
513
525
.
Parkinson
,
C.D.
Miyazaki
,
K.
Wakita
,
K.
Barber
,
A.J.
Carswell
,
D.A.
(
1998
):
An overview and tectonic synthesis of the pre-Tertiary very-high-pressure metamorphic and associated rocks of Java, Sulawesi and Kalimantan, Indonesia
.
Isl. Arc
 ,
7
:
184
200
.
Parkinson
,
C.D.
Motoki
,
A.
Onishi
,
C.E.
Maruyama
,
S.
(
2001
):
Ultrahigh-pressure pyrope-kyanite granulites and associated eclogites in Neoproterozoic nappes of Southeast Brazil
.
UHPM Workshop 2001, Fluid/slab/mantle interactions andultrahigh-Pminerals
 ,
Waseda Univ.
,
Tokyo
, Abstr. Vol.,
87
90
.
Reinecke
,
T.
(
1991
):
Very-high-pressure metamorphism and uplift of coesite bearing metasediments from the Zermatt-Saas zone, Western Alps
.
Eur. J. Mineral
 .,
3
:
7
17
.
Săbău
,
G.
(
2000
):
A possible UHP-eclogite in the Leaota Mts. (South Carpathians) and its history from high-pressure melting to retrograde inclusion in a subduction melange
.
Lithos
 ,
52
:
253
276
.
Sachan
,
H.K.
Mukherjee
,
B.R.
(
2003
):
Metamorphic and fluid evolution of ultra-high metamorphosed (UHP) crust of Tso-Morari region, Ladakh, Himalaya, (India): constraints from mineral chemistry and fluid inclusions
. In
Alice Wain Memorial Western Norway Eclogite Field Symp., Selje, Western Norway, Abstr. Vol
 .,
124
125
.
Shatsky
,
V.S.
Sobolev
,
N.V.
Vavilov
,
M.A.
(
1995
):
Diamond-bearing metamorphic rocks of the Kokchetav Massif (Northern Kazakhstan)
. In
Coleman
,
R.G.
Wang
,
X.
(eds.):
Ultrahigh pressure metamorphism
 .
Cambridge
:
Cambridge Univ. Press
,
427
455
.
Smith
,
D.C.
(
1988
):
A review of the peculiar mineralogy of the “Norwegian Coesite Eclogite Province”, with crystal-chemical, petrological, geochemical and geodynamic notes and an extensive bibliography
. In
Smith
,
D.C.
(ed.):
Eclogites and eclogite-facies rocks
 .
Amsterdam
:
Elsevier
,
1
206
.
Sobolev
,
N.J.
Shatsky
,
V.S.
(
1990
):
Diamond inclusions in garnet from metamorphic rocks: a new environment for diamond formation
.
Nature
 ,
343
:
742
746
.
Song
,
S.G.
Yang
,
J.S.
Liou
,
J.G.
Shi
,
R.D.
(
2003
):
Metamorphic evolution of the coesite-bearing ultrahigh-pressure terrane in the North Qaidam, northern Tibet, NW. China
.
J. Metamorph. Geol
 .,
21
:
613
644
.
Tagiri
,
M.
Yano
,
T.
Bakirov
,
A.
Yakajima
,
T.
Uchiumi
,
S.
(
1995
):
Mineral parageneses and metamorphic P-T paths of ultrahigh-pressure eclogites from Kyrghyzstan Tien-Shan
.
Isl. Arc
 ,
4
:
280
292
.
Treloar
,
P.J.
O'Brien
,
P.J.
Parrish
,
R.R.
Khan
,
M.A.
(
2003
):
Exhumation of early Tertiary, coesite-bearing eclogites from the Pakistan Himalaya
.
J. Geol. Soc. London
 ,
160
:
367
376
.
Van der Klauw
,
S.N.G.C.
Reinecke
,
T.
Stockhert
,
B.
(
1997
):
Exhumation of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic oceanic crust from Lago di Cignana, Piedmontese zone, western Alps: a structural record in metabasites
.
Lithos
 ,
41
:
79
102
.
Wain
,
A.
(
1997
):
New evidence for coesite in eclogite and gneisses: defining an ultrahigh-pressure province in the Western Gneiss Region of Norway
.
Geology
 ,
25
:
927
930
.
Wang
,
X.
Liou
,
J.C.
(
1991
):
Regional ultrahigh-pressure coesite-bearing eclogitic terrane in central China: evidence from country rocks, gneiss, marble and metapelite
.
Geology
 ,
19
:
933
936
.
Wang
,
X.
Liou
,
J.G.
Mao
,
H.K.
(
1989
):
Coesite-bearing eclogites from the Dabie mountains, central China
.
Geology
 ,
17
:
1085
1088
.
Wang
,
X.
Zhang
,
R.
Liou
,
J.G.
(
1995
):
UHPM terrane in East Central China
. In
Coleman
,
R.G.
Wang
,
X.
(eds.):
Ultrahigh pressure metamorphism
 .
Cambridge
:
Cambridge Univ. Press
,
356
390
.
Yang
,
J.
Xu
,
Z.
Zhang
,
J.
Song
,
S.
Wu
,
C.
Shi
,
R.
Li
,
H.
Brunel
,
M.
(
2002
):
Early Palaeozoic North Qaidam UHP metamorphic belt on the north-eastern Tibetan plateau and a paired subduction zone
.
Terra Nova
 ,
14
:
397
404
.
Zhang
,
R.Y.
Liou
,
J.G.
(
1998
):
Ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism of the Sulu terrane, eastern China: a prospective view
.
Cont. Geodyn
 .,
3
:
32
53
.
Zhang
,
R.Y.
Hirajima
,
T.
Banno
,
S.
Cong
,
B.
Liou
,
J.G.
(
1995
):
Petrology of ultrahigh-pressure rocks from the southern Su-Lu region, eastern China
.
J. Metamorph. Geol
 .,
13
:
659
675
.
Zhang
,
L.
Ellis
,
D.J.
Jiang
,
W.
(
2002
):
Ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism in western Tianshan: Part I. Evidence from inclusions of coesite pseudomorphs in garnet and from quartz exsolution lamellae in omphacite in eclogites
.
Am. Mineral
 .,
87
:
853
860
.

Related

Citing Books via

Close Modal
This Feature Is Available To Subscribers Only

Sign In or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal