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Mössbauer spectroscopy: Basic principles

By
Georg Amthauer
Georg Amthauer
Division of Mineralogy and Material Science, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstr. 34, A-5020 Salzburg
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Michael Grodzicki
Michael Grodzicki
Division of Mineralogy and Material Science, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstr. 34, A-5020 Salzburg
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Werner Lottermoser
Werner Lottermoser
Division of Mineralogy and Material Science, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstr. 34, A-5020 Salzburg
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Günther Redhammer
Günther Redhammer
Division of Mineralogy and Material Science, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstr. 34, A-5020 Salzburg
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Published:
January 01, 2004

Abstract

Among the various spectroscopic methods which today are applied in geochemistry and mineralogy, Mössbauer spectroscopy plays an important role for mainly two reasons: First, the high resolution and accuracy of the method enables quantitative measurements by the detection of very small energy differences. Second, although the applicability of Mössbauer spectroscopy is limited to a relatively small number of isotopes, the most suitable and common Mössbauer active element, iron, belongs to the five most abundant elements of the earth, and is by far the most abundant transition element. Accordingly, many of the important rock-forming or ore minerals contain iron as a main or substitutional ion and much important petrological and geochemical information may be obtained by the study of iron, using the Mössbauer effect. For instance, the oxygen fugacity fO2 is a very important parameter in rocks and ore forming processes. Changing Fe2+/Fe3+ ratios in Fe-bearing minerals document varying oxygen fugacities during their formation and their subsequent geological history. The Mössbauer effect is particularly well suited to study special properties of transition metals (such as Fe), e.g. changing oxidation and spin states, site-dependent electrical fields, magnetic hyperfine interactions etc. Therefore, most of the Mössbauer studies in geochemistry and mineralogy are made on 57Fe. Similarly, this paper deals mainly with Mössbauer spectroscopy on 57Fe, which is the Mössbauer active Fe isotope with 2.17% natural abundance. However, there are a number of other Mössbauer isotopes, such as 119Sn, 121Sb, 197Au etc., which have been investigated successfully with regard to geochemical as well as crystal chemical applications.

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Contents

European Mineralogical Union Notes in Mineralogy

Spectroscopic methods in mineralogy

Anton Beran
Anton Beran
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Eugen Libowitzky
Eugen Libowitzky
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Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland
Volume
6
ISBN electronic:
9780903056519
Publication date:
January 01, 2004

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