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Book Chapter

Non-stoichiometry, defects and superstructures in sulfide and oxide minerals

By
Falko Langenhorst
Falko Langenhorst
Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Institute of Geosciences, Analytical Mineralogy of Micro- and Nanostructures, Carl-Zeiss-Promenade 10, D-07745 Jena, Germany
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Dennis Harries
Dennis Harries
Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Institute of Geosciences, Analytical Mineralogy of Micro- and Nanostructures, Carl-Zeiss-Promenade 10, D-07745 Jena, Germany
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Kilian Pollok
Kilian Pollok
Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Institute of Geosciences, Analytical Mineralogy of Micro- and Nanostructures, Carl-Zeiss-Promenade 10, D-07745 Jena, Germany
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Published:
January 01, 2013

Abstract

Non-stoichiometric minerals have a chemical composition that cannot be expressed by a nominal cation to anion ratio. The excess or deficiency of ions in these minerals is commonly due to extrinsic vacancies that result from the substitution of cations in different valence states. The vacancies are invisible as long as they are isolated but become observable in the transmission electron microscope once they cluster or order into specific crystallographic directions or planes. The ordering of vacancies results in the formation of defect clusters or superstructures in minerals that greatly alter, in particular, magnetic and transport properties (diffusivity, conductivities) of minerals. This chapter surveys structural modifications in the non-stoichiometric minerals pyrrhotites (Fe1–xS), wüstite (Fe1–xO), rutile (TiO2 ), and perovskites (ABO3–x). The examples provide an instructive overview of how both cation deficiency and cation excess are accommodated by common crystal structures relevant to geoscience.

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Contents

European Mineralogical Union Notes in Mineralogy 14

Minerals at the Nanoscale

F. Nieto
F. Nieto
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K.J.T. Livi
K.J.T. Livi
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R. Oberti
R. Oberti
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Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland
ISBN electronic:
9780903056380
Publication date:
January 01, 2013

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