Roy E. Plotnick, 2016. "Lattice Models in Ecology, Paleontology, and Geology", Autogenic Dynamics and Self-Organization in Sedimentary Systems, David A. Budd, Elizabeth A. Hajek, Sam J. Purkis
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One of the most common and straightforward ways to explicitly represent spatial heterogeneity in simulations is with the use of some form of a lattice. Lattices are two- or three-dimensional grids in which entities are connected using various forms of local rules. They are thus ideal for representing systems with different levels of local interactions and, thus, for exploring the processes and impacts of self-organization. Models based on lattices have found wide usage in ecology and geology and often use the same basic formalism, despite the differences in the entities being studied. Groups of models, such as cellular automata, self-organized criticality, and diffusion limited aggregation, show how complex spatial structures and temporal behaviors can arise from local interactions only in the absence of external forcing. Other models that incorporate external processes, such as percolation-based models of fire and diseases, demonstrate that self-organization can strongly affect the signal produced by exogenous disturbances. Most lattice models are best used as tools for improving understanding of the dynamics of systems under various sets of assumptions of internal dynamics and external forcing, rather than as a means for accurate predictions of actual system behaviors. Lattice models that integrate ecology and sedimentology could be used to introduce an explicit spatial component into studies of Earth system history.
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Autogenic Dynamics and Self-Organization in Sedimentary Systems
Autogenic dynamics and self-organization in sedimentary systems are increasingly viewed as significant and important processes that drive erosion, sediment transport, and sediment accumulation across the Earth’s surface. These internal dynamics can dramatically modulate the formation of the stratigraphic record, form biologically constructed depositional packages, affect ecological patterning in time and space, and impact aspects of geochemical sedimentation and diagenesis. The notion that autogenic processes are local phenomena of short duration and distance is now recognized as false. Understanding autogenic dynamics in sedimentary systems is thus essential for deciphering the morphodynamics of moderns sedimentary systems, accurately reconstructing Earth history, and predicting the spatial and temporal distribution of sedimentary and paleobiologic features in the stratigraphic record. The thirteen papers in this volume present exciting new ideas and research related to autogenic dynamics and self-organization in sedimentology, stratigraphy, ecology, paleobiology, sedimentary geochemistry, and diagenesis. Five papers summarize the current state of thinking about autogenic processes and products in fluvial-deltaic, eolian, and carbonate depositional systems, and in paleobiologic and geochemical contexts. A second group of papers provide perspectives derived from numerical modeling and laboratory experiments. The final section consists of field studies that explore autogenic processes and autogenically modulated stratigraphy in five case studies covering modern and ancient fluvial, deltaic, and shelf settings. This SP should stimulate further research as to how self-organization might promote a better understanding of the sedimentary record.