Remote-sensing–based coal-fire detection with low-resolution MODIS data
Christoph Hecker, Claudia Kuenzer, Jianzhong Zhang, 2007. "Remote-sensing–based coal-fire detection with low-resolution MODIS data", Geology of Coal Fires: Case Studies from Around the World, Glenn B. Stracher
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Remote-sensing imagery is often used for detecting and monitoring coal fires. The Landsat7 Enhanced thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor and its predecessors of the Landsat family were frequently utilized for that purpose. With Landsat5 quickly approaching the end of its lifetime and the partial malfunction of Landsat7 in 2003, other potential sensors, including Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrora-diometer (MODIS), merit investigation. One kilometer MODIS data were successfully acquired and analyzed to detect coal fires in China during one summer and two winter night scenes. Band ratios of MODIS bands 20/32 enhanced subpixel-sized hot spots over background values, and an automated thermal anomaly algorithm was an asset in extracting potential coal-fire locations. for areas with known subsurface fires, between 0% and 17% were correctly detected in the three images. Areas with surface fires had success rates of 42% to 49%. These results indicate that MODIS is potentially useful for monitoring large areas for newly developing surface coal fires. Most subsurface coal fires, however, remain undetected.
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Geology of Coal Fires: Case Studies from Around the World
The “sedimentary cover” refers to the stratified rocks of youngest Proterozoic and Phanerozoic age that rest upon the largely crystalline basement rocks of the continental interior. The early chapters of the volume present data and interpretations of the geophysics of the craton and summarize, with sequential maps, the tectonic evolution of the craton. The main body of the text and accompanying plates and figures present the stratigraphy, structural history, and economic geology of specific sedimentary basins (e.g., Appalachian basin) and regions (e.g., Rocky Mountains). The volume concludes with a summary chapter in which the currently popular theories of cratonal tectonics are discussed and the unresolved questions are identified.