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The deglaciation history of northeastern Minnesota and northwestern Ontario is outlined using geological and ichthyofaunal evidence from the continental to local scales. Both published and new data indicate the existence of eastern outlets drawing from pre-and-early Agassiz lakes. Part of the Arctic watershed was impounded between the Duluth Complex highlands and the retreating Rainy lobe. These outlets had their flows routed through the “Keating Complex” and the “Gunflint Arrow Lakes Corridor.” Discharges around the Duluth Complex’s northeast limb reached the Superior basin along Superior lobe ice, then exited down existing pre-glacial river valleys and a prominent, “valley-type” topographic bench between Hovland and Grand Marais, Minnesota.

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