Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination


This field guide examines the evidence for multiple readvances of the Superior lobe, as well as the morphological and sediment record of glacial lakes in the western Lake Superior basin. During each readvance of the Superior lobe, ice went a shorter distance, reached a lower elevation, and laid down a finer-grained till due to incorporation of proglacial lake sediment. There are three distinct tills, which are correlated to three readvance phases: the St. Croix/Automba, Split Rock, and Nickerson. A red clay typically caps the stratigraphy at lower elevations in the basin. This clay may be a fourth till associated with a late readvance, perhaps equivalent to the Marquette phase in eastern Lake Superior. Alternatively, the red clay may be lacustrine. At issue are the potential hydraulic connections between glacial Lake Agassiz and the Atlantic Ocean during, and after, the Younger Dryas, because a readvance would fill the western Superior basin with ice and prohibit eastern Lake Agassiz drainage. Additional stops highlight the strandline and sediment record of the youngest glacial lake phase (glacial Lake Duluth), including the inspection of Lake Superior sediment cores that are archived at the National Lacustrine Core Repository in Minneapolis. The goals of the selected stops are to underscore the current understanding of the late glacial history of the western Superior basin and to provide new insights to spark discussion.

You do not currently have access to this chapter.

Figures & Tables




Citing Books via

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal